The combination of large antropogeneous objects -
agrocomplex, nuclear station, network of ports both unique natural and historical corners
- sanctuary Lebiaje, Kurgalsky, Gostilitsky and Kotelsky nature
reserves, monuments of a nature is characteristic of a Shores of
the gulf of Finland
The nature of this region is unique. Its peculiarity is
determined first of all by the fact that it was covered by
gletchers of the last glacial period (about 10 thousands
years ago). Its landscapes carry explicit indications of
youth in the reliefs of surface sediments, hydrographic
network, and organic world.
The greater part of this area is located within the
Preglint plain terraced as a result of activity of the
ancient Littoral Sea (called so after the name of a mollusc
living in this ancient sea 3-6 thousands years ago). The
sea began to recede approximately 3800 years ago, leaving
terraces where its bottom was previously.
The lower Seaside terrace is a narrow strip 3 to 5 metres
high above the sea level and the width up to 1 km. This is
a lowland with separate heights and typical glacial-lake
landscapes. At the shore, picturesque "white dunes" can be
met, with pines growing on them (for example, between Lake
Goravaldaiskoye and Batareynaya Bay, on the territory of
the Sosnovy Bor city, and to the west from it).
The second terrace has the height 10 to 18 metres above the
sea level. On its area, the soil is mainly blue clay 50 to
60 metres thick. From the south, the second terrace is
limited by the Baltic-Ladoga bench. To the south from the
bench, Ordovik plateau is located. Its higher, western
part is called Izhora heights (up to 168 metres high). It
limits the drainage basin of the Gulf of Finland from the
south. Its distinctive feature is almost complete absence
of rivers and lakes.
The greatest rivers of the south part of the drainage area
of the Gulf of Finland are Luga,
Sista and Kovash. They
are fed by underground waters that are formed in the karst
cavities of the Ordovik plateau. The lakes are mainly of
the glacial origin. They were formed after melting the
gletcher, and are located in the pre-glacial gullies.
Extremely valuable for the region are unique nature zones
that preserved in the present environment changed by human
invasion. In the first turn, these are sea-side areas.
Part of them have the status of specially protected natural
areas: natural reserves Kurgalskiy, Lebiaje and Kotelskiy. Two of them -
Kurgalskiy and Lebiaje - are also wetlands of international significance mainly as the
habitat of waterfowl. Gostilitsy botanical natural reserve is valuable with its unique oak-groves and grasses.
Officially affirmed natural objects in the region are the
radon lake in the village Lopukhinka and the oak-grove near
the village Velkota. Besides them, there are many natural
zones and objects in the region that have no protection by
the Law, but need it.
Here are some of them:
- Dunes at the Batareynaya Bay, in the Sosnovy Bor city
and to the west from it
- Dunes at the south-west of the Kurgalskiy peninsula
- The Koporskiy bench
- The Suryevskiye swamps
- Lake Lubenskoye
- Oak-grove in village Martyshkino ("Mordvinovskiye
- Oak-grove in village Kronshtadtskaya Koloniya
The sea-side area on the whole needs conservation both as a unique landscape element and as the habitat of many species of wild life. This is also a potential area for tourism, a valuable resource for economical development with environmentally friendly nature use. To preserve this natural habitat for our and future generations, the most valuable nature zones must be protected by the Law. Along with it, environmental NGO's must protected them notwithstanding their legal status, control their state and popularise their natural value.